Snodgrass W1, Blanquel JS2, Bush NC3.

J Pediatr Urol. 2016 Nov 23. pii: S1477-5131(16)30370-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.10.014



We review outcomes after management of meatal balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO). The primary outcome was recurrent meatal BXO.


A database comprising mostly hypospadias patients was queried for meatal BXO. The disease was confirmed histologically in all cases. Management included topical steroids and/or immunosuppressants, and/or surgical excision of BXO with two-stage oral mucosa graft circumferential replacement urethroplasty.


A total of 12 patients had meatal BXO (8 boys and 4 adults). Of these, 10 had hypospadias, two presenting without prior surgery and eight returning 5-30 years after one or multiple (n = 2) repairs. Another two boys did not have hypospadias: one developing BXO 10 years after newborn circumcision and the other having persistent meatal BXO following therapeutic circumcision. Topical and intraluminal steroids (1% betamethasone or clobetasol) and tacrolimus were used for ≥12 weeks each as primary therapy or for meatal recurrence in a total of six cases. Complete response with resolution of white discoloration and relief of stranguria only occurred in two of the three receiving clobetasol, with follow up ≤12 weeks. BXO excision and urethroplasty was done in 11 patients, 10 using oral mucosa grafts; one with a focal lesion and a negative frozen section had reoperative TIP. Of the 10 undergoing excision with two-stage replacement urethroplasty, six remain disease free at a mean follow-up of 23 months (8-48 months), and four had recurrent stranguria and visible meatal BXO at a median of 26 months (22-105 months). Three of the four with recurrences had additional treatment and one was lost to follow-up. All initially had topical steroids, and two also used tacrolimus, without clinical resolution. These three then underwent a second BXO excision and two-stage oral graft replacement urethroplasty. In two recurrences, BXO was found invading from the meatus proximally within oral mucosa (Figure). Of these three with secondary urethroplasties, two are free of disease at 6 and 18 months, and the third had another meatal recurrence 6 months after the second stage.


We found topical steroids and immunosuppressants to have limited efficacy, with two clinical complete responses achieved only with clobetasol in patients with short follow-up. Forty percent of patients recurred at 2-9 years after visually complete BXO excision and two-stage oral mucosa graft replacement urethroplasty, and in two cases disease invaded into oral mucosa, the first well-documented cases of this occurrence.